The hose should be stronger than any pressure you would put in the tires, and the size or speed of the compressor doesn't matter in terms of tube damage "blowout" with two possible exceptions:
1. the compressor has to put out enough PSI to blow the tube
2. a smaller compressor may heat more, although any air tube should be able to deal with this
A defect makes #1 more likely, and cutting off the blown tube probably removed the defect, e.g. the weaker part of the tube. #2 might cause the defect, but again an air hose should be able to take such things- I use the cheapo yellow tubes that come from Lowe's in the multipacks of chinese air fittings (they barely classify as straws) and haven't had a problem.
The other things that could cause a defect are kinking the tube right by the fitting- if there is a brass insert on the attachment that goes into the tube and it gets folded right there (getting crammed in with your gear or when it was made) that could cause a defect...mine usually split and start to leak near the fitting when they go bad.
So with all that said, if you're hooking directly to the compressor (no pressure cut off, no tank) than you need to have a hose and chuck that does not seal the system. The air has to have somewhere to go, or the pressure will build to max very rapidly in the tube itself.
If you heard the compressor sound change right before the bang, that may indicate air wasn't getting through the chuck. Did the sound change, like it was working harder? How did you determine it wasn't filling the second tire? If you turned off the compressor switch before removing the chuck, air should have still been coming out of the leak from the pressure in the tire.
As far as cutting the tube it should be fine- try to ensure you're not doing anything to recreate a defect (like storing it with razor blades and carpet knives
) and now you know some other things to watch for. Plus you have a second backup, repairing the tube and using the ARB. (I actually carry a few tubes and all kinds of fittings)